Wednesday, October 27, 2010

California Supply Chain Bill Signed into Law

Governor Schwarzenegger signs SB 657,which aims to help eliminate slavery and human trafficking from product supply chains, into law.

Part I

Part II

Friday, October 22, 2010

Exhibit: Invisble: Slavery Today

Invisible: Slavery Today

Earlier this month, the Freedom Center in Cincinnati, OH opened an exhibit examining modern-day slavery. "What we hope to do, at very least, is raise awareness that this exists," said Paul Bernish, the Freedom Center executive in charge of its contemporary slavery exhibit and programs, believed to be the first such position in the American museum field said in an article by Mark Curnutte. "Secondly, we want to offer people things they can do to become engaging to ending these forms of slavery."

According to their website,the "design and "feel" of Invisible is that of a dingy warehouse in an unfamiliar city, filled with wood, metal and plastic containers -- shipping cartons for human beings. Through a variety of techinques and media, including videos, sounds and touch-screen prsentations, Invisible offers a comprehensive examination of slavery in the modern world through the life experiences of five individuals who were caught up in one of the five most common forms of exploitation: forced labor, bonded indenture, child slavery, sex trafficking and domestic servitude. The exhibition explores the causes of slavery, the economic forces that have contributed to its growth, and the response of government, the justice system and the general public to this scourge. . .

"But Invisible is not just a grim walk through degradation and mistreatment. A major concluding section is devoted to antislavery activities underway around the world, especially by the Freedom Center's partners in the exhibition: Free the Slaves, Goodweave, International Justice Mission and Polaris Project. Visitors are also asked to make a personal commitment to be 21st Century Abolitionists in the cause of freedom."

Click here to learn more about the Freedom Center and for information about the Invisible exhibit. Click here to view photos from the exhibit.

Thursday, October 21, 2010

Operation to Uncover Illegal Fishing Leads to Discovery of Slavery

Slavery' uncovered on trawlers fishing for Europe

Exclusive: Violence and incarceration for months or even years found on ships off coast of west Africa
Felicity Lawrence
The Guardian, Thursday 30 September 2010

Shocking evidence of conditions akin to slavery on trawlers that provide fish for European dinner tables has been found in an investigation off the coast of west Africa.
Forced labour and human rights abuses involving African crews have been uncovered on trawlers fishing illegally for the European market by investigators for an environmental campaign group.

The Environmental Justice Foundation found conditions on board including incarceration, violence, withholding of pay, confiscation of documents, confinement on board for months or even years, and lack of clean water.
The EJF found hi-tech vessels operating without appropriate licences in fishing exclusion zones off the coast of Sierra Leone and Guinea over the last four years. The ships involved all carried EU numbers, indicating that they were licensed to import to Europe having theoretically passed strict hygiene standards.

"We didn't set out to look at human rights but rather to tackle the illegal fishing that's decimating fish stocks, but having been on board we have seen conditions that unquestionably meet the UN official definition of forced labour or modern-day slavery," EJF investigator Duncan Copeland said. A report on the abuses is published by the foundation today.
Its photographs and film of the areas in which the crews were working and sleeping show quarters with ceilings less than a metre high where the men cannot stand up. Temperatures in the fish holds on some vessels where men were being required to sort, process and pack fish for lucrative European and Asian markets were 40 to 45 degrees, with no ventilation,

On some vessels the crews of up to 200 had little access to clean drinking water.
The trawlers have mostly been identified engaging in pirate fishing off west Africa. Many of the men on board have been recruited from the area around the Senegalese capital, Dakar. Others have been recruited from rural areas of Asia, including China and Vietnam, by agents.

According to a recent estimate illegal fishing accounts for between 13% and 31% of total catches worldwide each year, but accurate figures are hard to come by.


Investigators for an environmental group discovered slave like conditions aboard ships fishing illegally off the coast of West Africa. These conditions included violence, confinement and withholding of documents. The ships were fishing in restricted areas and while they did not have licenses to fish there, they did have licensed to sell fish in European markets. The men had little if any access to clean water and were often in confined spaces where the temperature would reach over 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Many of the men were recruited from Senegal but some also came from Vietnam and China. It is still unclear what will happen from here. For example will the men be able to bring charges against the ship owners and if so where, since at this point (at least for the public) it is unclear which flag the ships were flying under? This is one interesting situation of human trafficking involving unclear legal jurisdictions.

photo from

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

Job Opportunity: California Against Slavery Volunteer and Communications Coordinator

From Idealist
Volunteer and Communications Coordinator

California Against Slavery (CAS) is a 501(c)4 non-profit, non-partisan human rights organization. Founded in 2009, our mission is to strengthen California state laws to better reflect the personal and societal impact of human trafficking. Our goal is to put an initiative on the 2012 California ballot to strengthen current human trafficking laws and increase victims’ rights. We will start the signature gathering campaign in the Fall of 2011. In preparation, CAS has one year to enlist 100,000 members and raise $1 million. For more information, please visit

CAS has an immediate need for a motivated, dependable, organized and articulate individual for a part-time, contract position. Reporting to Executive Director, the Volunteer and Communications Coordinator is responsible for the volunteer recruitment program. S/he will also work on various aspects of communications and help with fundraising efforts. S/he will gain expertise on the issue of human trafficking in our state and nation, the initiative process and the CAS proposed initiative.

CAS is a volunteer-based organization. This is CAS's first compensated position. The ideal candidate is someone feels a personal calling to end modern day slavery and a commitment to CAS's mission for justice.

•Recruit, mobilize, motivate and train volunteers to form County Committees across the state and to fill specific central roles
•Provide guidance and leadership to County Committees on fundraising, volunteer recruitment, messages to educate about CAS, and strategies to enlist county resources and organizations to support and fund CAS’s mission
•Work with Core Team to create & execute plans to achieve monthly membership and fundraising targets
•Supervise volunteers and possibly interns/fellows
•Assist with planning weekly leadership meetings and special events
•Be involved in all aspects of communications:
- Maintain and update website, newsletter, Facebook, and Twitter content
- Respond to e-mail and voicemail
- Draft and edit correspondences with volunteers, members, endorsers, and others as needed
- Represent CAS at events, forums and collaborative, including being a guest speaker
- Be well informed of the latest news in human trafficking in California
- Assist the Communications Director with press releases
•Work collaboratively with law enforcement associations, attorney groups, elected officials from all political parties and other community organizations
•Keep abreast of latest thinking around volunteerism and volunteer issues
•Other duties as assigned

This is a contract, part-time position for 3 months. Position and hours may be extended after 3 months based on organizational needs.

Hours: 20 hours a week
Compensation: $15/hour
Location: Fremont, CA or San Diego, CA
Additional Qualifications:
•Motivated, dependable, articulate, positive, energetic self-starter who takes initiative to help create and execute the organization’s activities
•3-5 years of work experience, with 2 years coordinating community volunteers and writing/editing preferred, experience in fundraising a plus.
•Excellent writing skill, including ability to write a variety of communications ? from motivational letters to news articles, to op-eds and opinion pieces, to press releases and brochures.
•Confident public speaker
•High sense of integrity. Has good judgment, conflict resolution, and organizational skills
•Able to work in a startup environment and accept and manage rapid changes
•Ability to both take direction and to work autonomously
•Has a "COUNT ME IN" attitude regardless if the task is clerical or administrative
•Available to work half day on Saturdays and Sunday evenings for our weekly leadership meeting
•Has a reliable transportation to travel to events or meetings locally
•May require some travel to other parts of California
•Working knowledge of MS Office and comfort with navigating the internet
•Bachelor's degree or equivalent work experience

How to Apply:
Send resume and writing sample to CAS's effort is mission critical and will make a real and substantial impact against the heinous crime of human trafficking in our backyard. We need an individual who has a strong record of following through on assignments, commitments and deadlines. So please…absolutely no flakes.

Tuesday, October 19, 2010

Canada's First Case of Forced Labor (If the Charges Remain)

Human trafficking charge laid

Last Updated: October 11, 2010 6:25pm

The alleged head of a crime family wanted in a massive human trafficking investigation was slapped with police bracelets over the weekend.

Ferenc Domotor, 48, was arrested in the Hamilton area Saturday, a day after police announced arrest warrants for him and nine members of his family.

They’re wanted in connection with Canada’s biggest human trafficking investigation since the Criminal Code charge came into effect five years ago.

As of Monday, police had identified 19 victims, alleging they were trafficked from a small Hungarian town to Hamilton and forced to work for the Domotor family’s construction company without pay.

According to investigators, men brought from Hungary were coached on how to claim refugee status.

They also alleged traffickers made the victims file for social assistance and stole their payments.

The victims were kept in basements, restricted in where they could go or speak with and had threats made against them and their families in Hungary, police alleged.

Domotor is charged with human trafficking and fraud.

“We believe they are in the Hamilton area but we fear some may have left the country,” a police source said Monday of the outstanding family members.

Explaining why the investigation took 10 months before the arrest warrants were announced for human trafficking charges, the source said: “It’s not an investigation of a bag of coke. It’s an investigation of human beings. And these people have fears, they have families and they have threats. And you really as a police officer have to ensure these people that they’re safe or else they’re not going to come forward...

“We need our justice system on board, that’s huge. The justice system needs to learn what human trafficking’s about.”

Also wanted on charges of trafficking in persons and fraud are: Ferenc Domotor Jr., 20, Gyongyi Kolompar, 40, Gizella Kolompar, 41, Lajos Domotor, 42, Ferenc Karadi, 47, Gizella Domotor, 42, Attila Kolompar, 35, and Gyula Domotor, 32.

Zsanett Karadi, 24, is wanted for theft.

Not only is this the biggest human trafficking bust in Canada, but if the charges stick, they will be Canada’s first involving forced labour. The country has seen several human trafficking cases involving sex trafficking, mostly of Canadian women and girls.


This could be the first case brought to the courts on forced labor in Canada and it is the largest human trafficking case to date in the country. Ten people are being charged in the case and at this point, 19 victims have been identified. They came from a small village in Hungary and were forced to work in the family's construction firm. They were restricted in who they were allowed to talk to, they were kept in basements and the Social Service money they received from the state was confiscated by the traffickers. The victims families were also threatened should the victims not comply. The investigation took 10 months and it seems that unfortunately some of the family members may have already fled the country. Despite these setbacks, this case is sure to be monumental in the fight against human trafficking and forced labor in Canada.

Thursday, October 14, 2010

Michigan Law School to open Sex Trafficking Clinic in Mexico

From Spero News
By Jared Wadley

The Law School's Human Trafficking Clinic, of the University of Michigan, has received a $300,000 federal grant to open a similar clinic in Mexico in 2011.

This U.S. Department of State grant means the new clinic in Zacatecas, Mexico, will help victims of human trafficking, also known as modern-day slavery. This crime involves the recruitment, transportation, harboring or receipt of people for the purposes of slavery, forced labor and servitude.

Human trafficking exists nationwide and across the world. It can be found in many industries: agriculture, spas and massage parlors, hotel work and domestic service, as well as prostitution.

“By awarding us the grant, the State Department acknowledged that the success of our clinic could be replicated elsewhere,” says clinic director Bridgette Carr, a visiting clinical assistant professor of law. “We’re excited about this new venture and look forward to helping victims in Mexico.”

Read the full article here.


I was excited to see this announcement. Bridette Carr has led amazing work in the U.S. to use the law to protect victims and punish traffickers; she also helped start a similar clinic in Egypt. This collaboration with Mexico will be an important step to assisting victims and building multinational efforts to address slavery. Just as traffickers do not pay attention to borders, efforts to end trafficking need to cross borders and build partnerships across borders.

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

From Idealist

Program Assistant/Case Aide U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants

U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (USCRI), a nongovernmental, not-for-profit national organization dedicated to addressing the needs and rights of refugees and immigrants, seeks a Program Assistant/Case Aide for its Raleigh, North Carolina field office. This field office operates as a refugee resettlement program and employment program for refugees, asylees and victims of trafficking, and community education programs.

USCRI’s North Carolina field office has an immediate job vacancy for one part time Bilingual Case Aide. Essential job duties include providing translation, interpretation and case management and employment services to clients. Prepare and maintain case files, records and correspondence.

Excellent interpersonal skills, bilingual English and Spanish, the candidate must have valid Driver’s License, clean driving record and personal transportation. Prior experience with social services provision, employment services or refugee resettlement is preferred and the candidate must have dedication to the human rights of refugees, immigrants, asylum seekers and displaced people. J

Work will be performed at the Triangle region of North Carolina and Eastern NC 3801 Lake Boone Trail Suite 200 Raleigh, North Carolina

How to Apply:
US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants is an equal opportunity employer. Women and minorities are encouraged to apply.

Please submit via email a resume that includes salary history with a cover letter describing your interest and qualifications to:

Human Resources
U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants
2231 Crystal Drive, Suite 350
Arlington, VA 22202 email submission, please include the position and your name in the subject line)

Tuesday, October 12, 2010

Nomi Network Fall Collection

The Nomi Network has released its new fall collection. The items are designed in New York and made in Cambodia with recycled rice-paper material by survivors of sexual trafficking and women at-risk. Click view the fall collection and other items, click here.

Buy Her Bag Not her Body is created by Nomi Network, a non-profit organization working to eradicate sexual slavery and the trafficking of women. They have created a partnership between the fashion industry and cause-driven, well-designed merchandise made by at-risk women and survivors of sexual exploitation, providing them with fair, sustainable employment opportunities. 100% of the profit is reinvested into training and career development programs for women.

For more information about their work,visit

Monday, October 11, 2010

From the Economist

Trial trails

An American court blocks human-rights suits against businesses

Oct 7th 2010

WHEN lawyers for a group of Burmese villagers used an obscure American law in 1996 to sue Unocal, an oil company, for using forced labour and other abuses while constructing a pipeline in Myanmar, human-rights campaigners saw a new way of attacking companies (as opposed to their executives in person) for misdeeds abroad. A flurry of headline-grabbing suits followed. Nine Nigerians, including relatives of Ken Saro-Wiwa, a playwright, accused Shell of complicity in human-rights abuses. Vietnamese villagers sued Dow Chemical and others for injuries caused by the Agent Orange herbicide.

This avenue was abruptly closed recently when the second circuit Court of Appeals in New York ruled on September 17th that corporations could not be held liable under the Alien Tort Claims Act for breaches of international law abroad. Businesses had long argued this, but no American court had ruled clearly on the issue before. Both companies and their accusers reckoned that the courts treated the principle of liability as a given.

The decision, if upheld, will bring new clarity and an end to such lawsuits. But until all avenues of appeal are exhausted, the precedent will not be firmly set. The Supreme Court declined on October 4th to rule immediately on the specific question of whether corporations could be held liable under international law. It had been asked to do so by Talisman Energy of Canada, which won a case brought by Sudanese plaintiffs who accused it of conspiring with their government to commit genocide.

Read the full article here.


If this decision is upheld, it will be a blow to efforts to hold corporations accountable for profiting from slavery, forced labor, and child labor. I find the ruling particularly ironic, given that the Supreme Court recently rule that the government cannot restrict an individual's free speech rights for being incorporated; like Judge Pierre Leval who wrote the dissent for this New York case, I wonder why individuals are exempt from civil liability for slave trading if they are incorporated. As The Economist points out, regardless of the US' decision, other countries may continue to hold corporations accountable. However, if the US wishes to address the root causes of slavery and other human rights abuses, it must also hold corporations accountable.

Thursday, October 07, 2010

Phones4Freedom: Send in Your Old Phone to Help Others Fight Human Trafficking

From Phones4Freedom:

In the developing world, a lack of regular channels to information and resources prevents city-based anti-trafficking advocates from providing adequate resources to rural and at-risk communities. As advocates travel from cities to do outreach education to isolated/vulnerable regions, they are often remain disconnected from those who are in critical need of regular communication. The mission of Survivors Connect Helpline SMS Teams is to advance anti-trafficking networks in underserved communities using innovative mobile technology. Helpline SMS Networks consist of: NGOs, legal advocates, social service providers, law enforcement, and other key stake holders who act as first responders in a trafficking case.

The Helpline SMS Network is able to use this mobile network to regularly stay in touch with rural communities vulnerable to human trafficking, provide regular updates and information at a low cost, and respond to emergencies and prevent trafficking. We're using Frontline SMS, a free open-source platform that enables large-scale, two-way text messaging using only a laptop, GSM modem and inexpensive cell phones.

By using this technique, we are preventing slavery and human trafficking one text at a time!
How will your Phone Make a difference?
By Donating to Phones4Freedom, Survivors Connect will earn "points" or "credits" to purchase the appropriate mobile equipment for Helpline SMS anti-trafficking networks. The average donated phone in the US will allow us to purchase 2-3 phones.

To learn more about what we've done, check out and

Frequently Asked Questions

Does it cost money?

If you're shipping in the US then absolutely not! The shipping labels are prepaid, thanks to our generous partner The WirelessSource. If you wish to donate from outside the US, email us at to explore possibilities.
Does my phone's condition matter?

Doesn't matter one bit. Send us any and all phones, beat up and old. Our recycling partner will take care of them.
What happens to my phone?

We have partnered up with The WirelessSource to recycle and process your phone. They will either refurbish or fully recycle the phone. Phones4Freedom will receive "credits" or "points" for every phone you send it, which will then allow us to purchase appropriate phones for our anti-trafficking advocates and anti-trafficking networks around the world. 100% of the value of your cell phone is used to obtain the right phones for the networks.

How can I start a collection campaign at my place of business, school, place of worship etc?

Email us at with details about your ideas. We will send you a kit with everything you need to start your own collection campaign. This will include a unique shipping label for you so we can track how many phones are donated through your campaign. In addition, we'll send a collection box and fundraising kit including handy flyers and images for your use.
I have personal information on my phone, how do I get rid of it?

Removing your SIM chip is step 1. This will remove all contacts. However, you may still have contacts, notes, and pictures saved on your phone's memory. In order to remove it, can follow the instructions here OR The WirelessSource will do it for you!
I have more electronics at home. Can I recycle and donate them?

You sure can! The The WirelessSource has expanded their recycling categories to include laptops, MP3 players, digital cameras, camcorders and gaming systems. You may use the same shipping label to send those as well.. Survivors Connect will receive credits for all electronics donated and recycled.

Phones4Freedom is an fascinating project which, is sponsored by Survivors Connect and partnered with The WirelessSource. Community members send their phones in, free of charge. The Wireless Sources recycles or refurbishes the phones and Phones4Freedom gets credits for them. The organization uses these credits to purchase phones for anti-trafficking advocates around the world. The condition of the phone does not mater and the WirelessSource can even take other electronics.

If you are interested in sending a phone or another electronic device, please visit where you can print your shipping label and learn how to properly ship it. In addition, there is information on how to get others involved by printing flyers and starting a campaign at your school/work or place of worship. This is an excellent way to get rid of an old phone, fight trafficking and save the environment at the same time.

Wednesday, October 06, 2010

Job Opportunity: Boat People SOS Staff Attorney

From Idealist:

Boat People SOS, Inc. (BPSOS) seeks a full-time attorney for its legal services programs. The Programs include direct legal services for survivors of human trafficking and domestic violence; direct legal services for Vietnamese immigrants and refugees; outreach and education for the community; and training and technical assistance for service providers.


1. Provide survivors of human trafficking with legal services and referrals in matters including immigration, employment, family law, and civil rights;

2. Provide survivors of domestic violence with legal services and referrals in matters including immigration and family law;

3. Recruit, train and mentor pro bono attorneys, volunteers and local service providers assisting human trafficking and domestic violence survivors;

4. Collaborate with other local, regional, and national providers to strengthen a coalition of service providers and law enforcement engaged in the issue of human trafficking;
5. Conduct community outreach and education on legal remedies available to trafficking and domestic violence survivors and to the Vietnamese community regarding immigration options;

6. Provide legal representation to Vietnamese immigrants and refugees on immigration issues including family-based immigration, refugee adjustment, naturalization, cancellation of removal, disability waivers for torture survivors, and other avenues of relief; and

7. Represent asylum seekers in asylum and removal proceedings.

1. Clients receive effective, quality service in a timely, professional manner;
2. BPSOS is well-represented among public and private agencies; and

3. Collaborative networks are strengthened and improved to form a seamless network of services for survivors.

Location: Falls Church, VA and / or Silver Spring, MD

Additional Qualifications:

1. Juris Doctor from an accredited law school;

2. Admitted to practice law either in Maryland or Virginia;

3. Experience in immigration and/or family law;

4. Experience in working with victims of trauma (domestic violence, family violence, sexual assault or human trafficking);

5. Outreach and training experience preferred;

6. English and Vietnamese fluency preferred; and

7. Bicultural background preferred.

How to Apply:
Send cover letter, resume and list of three professional references to:
Human Resources

BPSOS is an equal opportunity employer!

Tuesday, October 05, 2010

Halloween and Human Trafficking

With Halloween quickly approaching, October is a particularly opportune month to raise awareness about the use of forced labor, child labor, and other exploitative labor practices in the chocolate industry. A number of organizations are hosting campaigns to help community members raise awareness about these issues and to encourage the chocolate industry to continue to address these abuses in the industry.

The Dark Side of Chocolate
The International Labor Rights Forum, along with Global Exchange, Green America and Oasis USA, are organizing screenings of The Dark Side of Chocolate all across the country. This new documentary exposes the ongoing use of child labor, forced labor and trafficking in the cocoa industry in West Africa. It is a great resources for increasing awareness of this critical labor rights issue.

As part of the Raise the Bar Hershey campaign, they are asking concerned individuals to host screenings in their communities throughout October 2010, especially during a national week of action from October 25 through October 31.

For more information, please contact Tim Newman at or 202-347-4100
To watch the trailer, click Here
To download a community screening toolkit, click Here

Reverse Trick-or-Treating
Ten to twenty thousand groups of children will hand chocolate back to adults during their regular neighborhood trick-or-treating rounds this Halloween. The children will distribute Fair Trade certified chocolate attached to a card explaining the labor and environmental problems in the cocoa industry globally and how Fair Trade provides a solution. The event, Reverse Trick-or-Treating, was launched to raise awareness of the pervasive problem of child labor, forced labor and trafficking in the cocoa fields, to empower consumers to press the chocolate industry for more fair cocoa sourcing policies, to shift the industry toward sourcing Fair Trade certified cocoa, and to inform consumers about Fair Trade companies that are leading the way to industry reform. Fair Trade standards prohibit the use of abusive child labor, contain extensive environmental sustainability protections, and enable farmers to escape poverty.

To learn more, click Here
To order a kit, click Here

Monday, October 04, 2010

Gov. Schwarzenegger Signs Legislation to Combat Human Trafficking

Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger announced [on 9/30/2010 that] he has signed SB 657 by Senate President pro Tem Darrell Steinberg (D-Sacramento) to help eliminate slavery and human trafficking from product supply chains.

“Human trafficking is a terrible crime that goes against basic human rights and everything our country stands for,” said Governor Schwarzenegger. “I am proud that in California, we have enacted some of the toughest laws to punish human traffickers and protect their victims. This legislation will increase transparency, allow consumers to make better, more informed choices and motivate businesses to ensure humane practices throughout the supply chain.”

SB 657 requires major retail sellers and manufacturers doing business in California to disclose their voluntary efforts to eradicate slavery and human trafficking from its direct supply chain for tangible goods offered for sale.

Read the Full Press Release Here.


With this bill, California has taken an important step forward in addressing human trafficking and the use of slave labor in the products that we buy. In addition to simply acknowledging the fact that slave labor exists in the supply chain for many of the goods that we consume, this bill encourages producers, retailers, and consumers to eliminate the use of slavery. By enacting this legislation, which is the first of its kind in the United States, California takes a leading role that hopefully other states will emulate.

Friday, October 01, 2010

Related Movements

Many diverse social justice, human rights, and anti-violence movements intersect with the anti-trafficking movement. Looking at the trafficking nexus in fields ranging from workers rights, to immigration issues, to the environment, to violence against women, provides insights into human trafficking, its causes, and important considerations for anti-trafficking efforts. This month, we explore some of those intersections.

Lauren: Internal Displacement and Political Refugees
Upon returning to NYU for my senior year, I decided to take a course in NYU’s journalism program concerning topics and issues surrounding the Middle East, which opened my eyes to two much larger issues that are still taking place in that region, internal displacement and political refugee. At the end of 2009 there were an estimated 3.8 million Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in the Middle East, according to the Internal Displacement Monoritoring Centre. Internal displacement occurs when a person is forced to move due to human rights violations or endangerment to their life, yet unlike political refugees who flee the country, internally displaced persons stay within that country’s borders. IDPs around the globe outnumber the amount of political refugees two to one, and yet this group is not guaranteed the protection or aid under the 951 Refugee Convention and the 1967 Protocol that political refugees are. Considering historical evidence of violence and terrorism that can arise from ostracizing groups of people from society, it seems negligent that the international community is not taking higher measures of precaution in providing aid to IDPs and refugees. I also cannot help but wonder, are internal displacement persons and political refugees not victims of Human Trafficking? Are they not subjected to the same human rights violations, violence, and subjection that would allow them the attention that human trafficking victims are allowed?

Jennifer: Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
Domestic violence and sexual assault have many intersections with human trafficking. Victims of sex trafficking are also victims of sexual assault, and intimate partners may be traffickers for both forced labor and commercial sex. Insights into victims' mindsets and the ways that psychological coercion is used by perpetrators to keep victims from leaving pioneered in the domestic violence movement are also valuable for assisting trafficking victims. Understanding the cycle of violence and the ways that power dynamics are used in relationships to control people can help those assisting victims. Victim-centered approaches and empowerment approaches that were developed in the domestic violence and sexual assault contexts also provide a framework for helping trafficking victims. In many places that do not have specific anti-trafficking service providers, domestic violence and sexual assault agencies provide shelter and other services to trafficking victims. Many of these organizations have expanded their programs to include anti-trafficking work, in recognition of the intersections with domestic violence and sexual assault, as well as in recognition of the expertise that many of these organizations bring to assisting victims of abuse and violence.

Amanda: Anti-Sweatshop Movement:
While the anti-sweatshop movement has more broad range workers rights goals than the anti-trafficking movement, there are quite a few intersections between the two groups. Primarily, the industries that attract attention from the anti-sweatshop movement should attract the attention of the anti-trafficking movement. These industries are largely free from real outside scrutiny and therefore are "ideal" places to exploit workers or victims of trafficking. An additional intersection is in how we approach fighting the problem. One approach is through consumer power. The anti-sweatshop movement asks concerned citizens not to buy from companies that use sweatshop labor. More recently the anti-trafficking movement has asked supporters not to buy from companies whose product chains may contain slave labor (think electronics or the shrimp industry in certain countries). There are still many things to learn from the anti-sweatshop movement though, including effectively utilizing national media to draw attention to the issue, as they did with several major clothing and athletic wear companies.